**Assignment 1: To verify the Truth Table of Basic Logic Gates**

**Logic Gates:**

- Fundamental building blocks of digital circuits.
- Perform logical operations on one or more binary inputs (0 or 1) and produce a single binary output.
- Essential for decision-making and calculations in computers, calculators, memory devices, and other digital systems.

**Basic Gates:**

**AND Gate:**Outputs 1 only if all inputs are 1.**OR Gate:**Outputs 1 if at least one input is 1.**NOT Gate:**Inverts the input (0 becomes 1, 1 becomes 0).

**Truth Tables:**

- Tabular representations of the relationship between inputs and outputs of logic gates.
- List all possible input combinations and their corresponding output values.

**Truth Tables for Basic Gates:**

**NOT Gate:**

Input (A) | Output (Y) |

0 | 1 |

1 | 0 |

**AND Gate:**

Input A | Input B | Output (Y) |

0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 0 |

1 | 0 | 0 |

1 | 1 | 1 |

**OR Gate:**

Input A | Input B | Output (Y) |

0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 1 |

1 | 0 | 1 |

1 | 1 | 1 |

**Assignment 2: ****To verify the Truth Table of Combinational Logic Gates**

**XOR Gate:**Outputs 1 if the inputs are different.**XNOR Gate:**Outputs 1 if the inputs are the same.

**XOR Gate:**

Input A | Input B | Output (Y) |

0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 1 |

1 | 0 | 1 |

1 | 1 | 0 |

**XNOR Gate:**

Input A | Input B | Output (Y) |

0 | 0 | 1 |

0 | 1 | 0 |

1 | 0 | 0 |

1 | 1 | 1 |

**Assignment 3: To verify the Truth Table of Universal Logic Gates**

**Universal Gates:**

**NAND Gate:**Outputs 1 if at least one input is 0.**NOR Gate:**Outputs 1 only if all inputs are 0. (These can be combined to create any other logic gate, hence the name “universal”)

**NAND Gate:**

Input A | Input B | Output (Y) |

0 | 0 | 1 |

0 | 1 | 1 |

1 | 0 | 1 |

1 | 1 | 0 |

**NOR Gate:**

Input A | Input B | Output (Y) |

0 | 0 | 1 |

0 | 1 | 0 |

1 | 0 | 0 |

1 | 1 | 0 |

**Assignment 4: To verify the Truth Table of Half Adder Combinational Circuit**

**Understand the Half Adder:**

- It’s a tiny circuit that adds two single-digit binary numbers (0 or 1).
- It has two inputs (A and B) and two outputs:
**Sum (S):**The result of adding A and B, without any carry-over.**Carry (C):**A 1 if adding A and B resulted in a “carry” to the next digit, otherwise 0.

**Know the Truth Table:**

Input A | Input B | Sum (S) | Carry (C) |

0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

0 | 1 | 1 | 0 |

1 | 0 | 1 | 0 |

1 | 1 | 0 | 1 |

**Verification Methods:**

**a. Simulation:**

- Use software like Logisim, Multisim, or Tinkercad to create a virtual Half Adder circuit.
- Apply all input combinations (00, 01, 10, 11) and observe the outputs.
- Compare the simulated outputs with the expected truth table to check for accuracy.

**b. Physical Circuit:**

- If available, build a physical Half Adder using logic gates (e.g., XOR, AND) and ICs (integrated circuits).
- Apply input combinations using switches or probes.
- Measure the output voltages with a multimeter or logic probe.
- Verify if the outputs match the truth table.